References and further reading
CHEM Trust’s most recent report is Effects of Pollutants on the Reproductive Health of Male Vertebrate Wildlife - Males Under Threat by Gwynne Lyons.
This report shows that male fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals have been harmed by chemicals in the environment. Widespread feminisation of male vertebrate wildlife is highlighted. These findings add to mounting worries about the role of hormone-disrupting or so-called ‘gender-bending' chemicals in the environment, and the implications for human health.
IPCS (International Programme for Chemical Safety) (2002) Global Assessment of the State-of-the-Science of Endocrine Disruptors. (eds. Damstra T. Barlow S, Bergman A, Kavlock R and Van Der Kraak G). An assessment prepared on behalf of the World Health Organisation (WHO), the International Labour Organisation and the United Nations Environmental Programme.
Downloadable at: www.who.int/pcs/emerg_site/edc/global_edc_TOC.htm
Allanou R., Hansen B.G., and van der Bilt Y (1999). Public availability of data on EU High Production Volume chemicals., European Chemicals Bureau: Ispra, Italy.
Lyons, G (1999) Chemical Trespass: A Toxic Legacy. WWF-UK Toxic Programme Report. www.panda.org/downloads/toxics/chemical_trespass.doc
Derocher, A et al. (2000). Immune response and chlorinated organic pollution in polar bears. Norwegian Polar Institute.
AMAP Assessment Report (2002) Arctic Pollution 2002
Indian and Northern Affairs Canada NCP Home Page. New Persistent Chemicals in the Arctic Environment. www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/ncp/abio_e.html
Accessed 22 August 2007
Ikonomou, M.G., Rayne, S., and Addison, R.F. (2002) Exponential Increases of the Brominated Flame Retardants, Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers, in the Canadian Arctic from 1981 to 2000 Environ. Sci. Technol. 2002, 36, 1886-1892
WWF Briefing (1999). Seals and Endocrine Disruptors.
Boon JP, Lewis WE, Tjoen-A-Choy MR, Allchin CR, Law RJ, de Boer J, ten Hallers-Tjabbes CC, Zegers BN (2002). Levels of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) Flame Retardants in Animals Representing Different Trophic Levels of the North Sea Food Web. Environmental Science Technology. 36(19) pp 4025 – 4032
Gibbons D. et al. (1993) The New Atlas of Breeding Birds in Britain and Ireland: 1988-1991. British Trust for Ornithology / Scottish Ornithologists Club / Irish Wildlife Conservancy.
Hayes T, Haston K, Tsui M, Hoang, A, Haeffele C & Vonk A. (2002) Herbicides: Feminization of male frogs in the wild. Nature 419, 895-896.
Hayes TB, Collins A, Lee M, Mendoza M, Noriega N, Stuart A and Vonk A (2002) Hermaphroditic,demasculinized frogs after exposure to the herbicide, atrazine, at low ecologically relevant doses.Proceedings National Academy of Sciences, 99, 8, 5476-5480
Endocrine Disruption in the Marine Environment (EDMAR) (2002).
CBS Sportsline.com German stores withdraw Nike shirts. January 6 2000
USGS (US Geological Society) (2001). River Otter Annual Report FY 2000,
(accessed August 2007)
Lyons G (2006). Viewpoint: Policy requirements for protecting wildlife from endocrine disruptors. Environ Health Perspect. Apr;114 Suppl 1:142-6. Review